[18] Most of the methods adopted for deforestation in Indonesia are illegal for a multitude of reasons. The corruption associated with illegal logging weakens the rule of law and fuels the cycle of transnational crime. Royal Institute of International Affairs; Duncan Brack, Gavin Hayman and Kevin Gray (2002), Tony Waters, The Persistence of Subsistence Agriculture, p. 3. Despite the economic importance of trade in timber and forest products, major international timber consumer countries, such as the EU, have no legal means to halt the import of illegally sourced forest products,[2] because the identification of illegally logged or traded timber is technically difficult. The law enforcement action led to BM Group’s removal from Russia’s federal list of priority investment projects, which allow a select group of firms to sidestep public auctions for logging rights. Illegal logging and the associated trade of illegally sourced wood products is a clandestine industry that threatens forests and economies alike. Climate change is fueling wildfires. If a plant is found to have been harvested in violation of the laws of the country where it was harvested, that plant would be subject to seizure and forfeiture if imported into the U.S. [13], In 2020, the United Kingdom announced it will ban companies from selling items that use raw materials sourced in a way which breaches local laws to protect forests and other natural environments in the country where they are produced. Illegal logging is a global problem with significant negative economic, environmental and social impact. Illegality may also occur during transport, such as illegal processing and export (through fraudulent declaration to customs); the avoidance of taxes and other charges, and fraudulent certification. The Africa Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (AFLEG) Ministerial Conference was held in Yaoundé, Cameroon in October 2003. It also outlines that businesses must undertake ‘due diligence’ on certain regulated processes. [53], The requirements under the new Amendments are two-fold. Section 9-13-10.1: Assistance of State Forestry Commission in control and suppression of wildfires by other state agencies: Section 9-13-11 Climate change is one of the most devastating problems humanity has ever faced—and the clock is running out. - As used in this Act, the term: China is the world’s largest importer of legal and illegal timber, and if the change is enforced it could boost efforts to fight the illegal logging trade. Conservation efforts Government policies. It involves cutting trees without permits or removing trees from protected areas, and other activities such as avoiding taxes and laundering illegal logs. Chatham House is monitoring forest governance and legality in 19 countries to assess the effectiveness of government and private sector efforts to tackle illegal logging and trade. Tell President Biden: It is time for bold action on nuclear weapons. Our transportation system is outdated and broken—and it needs to change. Private corporations, motivated by economic profits from local and regional market demands for timber, are culpable for deforestation. Sign up or text "SCIENCE" to 662266. Record breaking logging of last rainforests, "Indonesia's Sinar Mas Accused of Illegal Land Clearing", "Rates and Causes of Deforestation in Indonesia: Towards a Resolution of the Ambiguities", "Tackling Political Corruption to Combat Illegal Logging", "Thailand's green cover in slow decline as 40% goal remains out of reach", "Timber - Species we work with at TRAFFIC", UK BANS BIG BUSINESSES FROM SELLING PRODUCTS LINKED TO ILLEGAL DEFORESTATION, "The Stolen Forests: Inside the covert war on illegal logging", "U.S. Department of Agriculture Lacey Act Guidance", "Department of Agriculture Illegal Logging", "Australia: Illegal Logging Prohibition Regulation position paper welcomed by the timber industry", UAV Drones Becoming Valuable Tools in Fighting Illegal Deforestation in Global Conservation Projects, Satellite Technology Aims to Combat Illegal Logging in Real Time, "Timber trafficking: Illegal Logging in Indonesia, South East Asia and International Consumption of Illegally Sourced Timber", Illegal Logging and Related Timber Trade - Dimensions, Drivers, Impacts and Responses, International Union of Forest Research Organizations, FAO-EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Programme, European Commission page on illegal logging, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Illegal_logging&oldid=1000988444, Articles with dead external links from November 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles needing additional references from February 2013, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Protect the legal forestry industry in the United States. Between 50% and 90% of logging from the key countries in these regions is being carried out by organised criminal entities. An estimated 9.8 … However, long-term trends in illegal logging and trade have shown that this was temporary, and illegal logging continues. [21] This contributing social factor to deforestation reinforces the challenges faced by forestry sustainability in developing countries such as Indonesia. [5][6][7][8][9] Possible actions to restrict imports cannot meet with WTO regulations of non-discrimination. In May 2003, an Indonesian Government investigation confirmed that Korindo was receiving illegal timber from notorious timber barons known to obtain timber from an orang-utan refuge – the Tanjung Puting National Park. The identification of illegally logged or traded timber is technically difficult. Unfortunately, only a fifth of these forests are protected under environmental law 1. Therefore, a legal basis for normative acts against timber imports or other products manufactured out of illegal wood is missing. [28] Illegal commercial timber interests take advantage of weak law enforcement to benefit from illegal cutting. By continuing, you accept our use of cookies. Help protect workers from dangerous heat. The event was co-hosted by the World Bank and the Government of Indonesia. Here's how. [24], Due to the size and scope of Burma's forests, it is difficult for government organisations like Forest Department to regulate logging. Take action to prioritize science-based election reforms. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Illegal Logging: Law Enforcement, Livelihoods and the Timber Trade. In 2008 Congress passed amendments to the Lacey Act, a century-old law that combats trafficking in illegal plants and wildlife, and thus closed the entire U.S. market to illegally sourced wood. About Illegal Logging Although the international community has yet to agree upon the definition of "illegal logging," it is commonly understood as the harvest, transport, purchase or sale of timber or wood products in violation of national laws. The Saint Petersburg conference brought together nearly 300 participants representing 43 governments, the private sector, civil society and international organisations. [3][4] It will force businesses to check more carefully where their materials are coming from. [56], The Australian Illegal Logging Prohibition Regulation applies to importers into Australia of "regulated timber products" such as sawn timber, wood panels, pulp, paper products, and wood furniture. WHEREAS, Martial Law has been declared throughout the Philippines pursuant to Proclamation No. Other aspects in illegal logging that are not necessarily involved with the logging itself, but rather in the aspect of transactions in buying or selling illegally acquired lumber can also be considered to be illegal … EC/99/03, WWF International (2002) The Timber Footprint of the G8 and China, The Peruvian Environmental Law Society (2003), Learn how and when to remove this template message, transmigration projects undertaken by the Indonesian government, Forest Law Enforcement and Governance Program, Federal Forestry Agency of the Russian Federation, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, "Dawn timber-laundering raids cast doubt on 'sustainable' Brazilian wood", Wood laundering brings illegal Amazon timber to Europe — report, "Protecting the Environment with Intelligence – EIA International", "Tree sleuths are using DNA tests and machine vision to crack timber crimes", "People Fixing the World: Is your wood from a legal source? No purchase necessary. In social terms illegal logging can be linked to conflicts over land and resources, the disem… 2001; Ong et al. The energy choices we make today could make or break our ability to fight climate change. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. In the forestry sector, cheap imports of illegal timber and forest products, together with the non-compliance of some economic players with basic social and environmental standards, destabilise international markets. Generally though, illegal logging can be considered a process consisting of the following steps: illegal activities pre-logging (getting permits), illegal … It has been called a "world's first" by Zac Goldsmith, minister of state for pacific and the environment.[49]. Illegal logging is a pervasive problem, causing enormous damage to forests, local communities and to the economies of producer countries. ITFMP Report No. [54], The Timber Development Association (TDA) welcomes on June 6, 2014's release by the Australian Department of Agriculture of a position paper on the Illegal Logging Prohibition Regulation and guidance on how timber and wood products industry can comply on the Australian Government - Department of Agriculture[55] official website. On the political front, the Indonesian governmental role in curbing deforestation has largely been criticised. In the social landscape, small-scale subsistence farmers in rural areas, who received minimal education, employ a basic method of slash-and-burn to support their agricultural activities. Under Australian law, illegal logging means ‘the harvesting of timber in contravention of the laws of the country where the timber is harvested’. It allows for undocumented and unauthorized deforestation in which allows for the exploitation of Cambodia's forests. Illegal Logging: Law Enforcement, Livelihoods and the Timber Trade - Ebook written by Luca Tacconi. What is Forestry Law? The Declaration includes an indicative list of actions, intended to serve as a general framework for possible actions to be undertaken by governments as well as civil society. The 1999 Forestry Law states that it is essential for companies to be endorsed by authorities in respective regions with an IPK permit, a timber harvesting permit, for legal approval of their deforestation activities. Terms and conditions. We are a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Therefore, a legal basis for normative acts against timber imports or othe… Reduce illegal logging and its costly impacts. It prohibits the placing on the EU market for the first time of illegally harvested timber and products derived from such timber; It requires EU traders who place timber products on the EU market for the first time to exercise 'due diligence'; Once on the market, the timber and timber products may be sold on and/or transformed before they reach the final consumer. There is a high demand for timber from Burma's neighbours–notably Thailand and China–who have depleted their forests much more than Burma (plunder). [11], It is estimated that illegal logging on public land alone causes losses in assets and revenue in excess of US$10 billion annually. Tanjung Puting National Park is a 4,000 square kilometre conservation area of global importance. For companies in the forestry sector, publications making high estimates can be regarded as potentially threatening for their reputation and their market perspective, including the competitiveness of wood in comparison to other materials. In environmental terms illegal logging is associated with deforestation, climate change and a loss of biodiversity. [23] The lack of accountability to deforestation with pertinence to transmigration projects undertaken by the Indonesian government illustrates minimal supporting evidence to testify to considerations for forestry sustainability in their development projects. It has a devastating impact on some of the world's most valuable remaining forests, and on the people who live in them and rely on the resources that forests provide. In 2008, the acquittal of a proprietor for a timber firm, Adelin Lis, alleged for illegal logging further galvanised public opinion and drew criticisms at the Indonesian political institution. Illegal logging in the Amazon While laws exist which authorize logging in designated areas, illegal logging is widespread in Brazil and several Amazon countries. The AFLEG conference, the second regional forest law enforcement and governance meeting after East Asia, resulted in endorsement of a ministerial declaration and action plan as well as a variety of informal implementation initiatives. Corruption amongst local Indonesian officials fuels cynicism with regard to the governmental clampdown on illegal logging activities. It is a global problem with significant economic, social and environmental impact. On December 28, 2019, Chinese legislators revised the country’s Forest Law to ban “purchase, process or transport” of illegal logs. The Regulation starts on 30 November 2014 and requires that before import of these products or processing of raw logs, due diligence is undertaken to minimise the risk that the timber products or raw logs were illegally logged or incorporate illegally logged timber. The State shall therefore regulate the ownership, possession, sale, transfer, importation and/or use of chain saws to prevent them from being used in illegal logging or unauthorized clearing of forests. We're arming the new administration with facts, evidence, and science. [25] As a result, numerous illegal logging operations have sprung up near the Thai-Burmese border and in the province of Kachin along the Chinese border. This unfair competition affects those European companies, especially the small and medium-sized companies that are behaving responsibly and ready to play by fair rules. It is difficult for central government officials to visit areas still controlled by former Pol Pot forces. This agricultural practice is repetitively employed on the same plot of land until it is denuded of its nutrients and could no longer suffice to support agricultural yields. China is the world’s largest importer of legal and illegal timber, and if the change is enforced it could boost efforts to fight the illegal logging trade. These agro-industrial companies often do not comply with the basic legal regulations by inappropriately employing cost effective yet environmentally inefficient deforestation methods such as forest fires to clear the land for agricultural purposes. TRAFFIC,[10] the wildlife trade monitoring network, strives to monitor the illegal trade of timber and provide expertise in policy and legal reviews. 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge MA 02138, USA, Infographic: Wildfires and Climate Change, Building Equitable, Clean, and Climate-Safe Infrastructure, How Soil Erosion Threatens Food and Farms. The Europe and North Asia Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (ENA FLEG) Ministerial Conference was held in Saint Petersburg, Russia on 22–25 November 2005. It involves cutting trees without permits or removing trees from protected areas, and other activities such as avoiding taxes and laundering illegal logs. Illegal logging is a pervasive problem, causing enormous damage to forests, local communities, and the economies of producer countries. A preparatory conference was held in Moscow in June 2005. If effectively implemented, the Lacey Act will: Text "SCIENCE" to 662266 or sign up online. Illegal logging and the associated trade of illegally sourced wood products is a clandestine industry that threatens forests and economies alike. This test can tell", "Scientists are building a vast library of tree DNA in the fight against deforestation", "Havocscope Illegal Logging Market Value", "The Amazon's Silent Crisis: The EU Market and the EUTR", "TRAFFIC - Wildlife Trade News - Tanzania's disappearing timber revenue", indonesia trees indonesia without trees? [26] Due to the remoteness of these regions and the international demand for hardwoods, illegal logging is a threat that is hard to address and will probably continue contributing to deforestation. This includes a wide range of illegal activities, such as: logging of protected species; logging in protected areas; logging with fake … The election is over, but the crises are all still here. In 2008, WWF worked with a coalition of businesses and organizations to pass groundbreaking amendments to the Lacey Act that prohibit illegal timber and timber products from entering the US market. Help ensure that businesses know where their wood is coming from. Generating up to USD 157 billion each year, it attracts organised criminal groups and fosters widespread corruption. Of the 13 companies that were investigated, 12 had broken the law. [25], Lack of regulations has led to unbridled and destructive logging that has caused environmental damage such as soil erosion, river contamination, and increased flooding. (617) 547-5552. The Act makes it a criminal offense to intentionally, knowingly or recklessly import wood, pulp and paper products into Australia or process Australian raw logs that have been illegally logged. [19] Many of these corporations could circumvent this red tape, maximise revenue profits by employing illegal logging activities as lax law enforcement and porous law regulations in large developing countries like Indonesia undermine forestry conservation efforts.[20]. [26] In Kachin State, which has some of the largest expanses of relatively untouched forest, illegal logging accounts for up to half of the deforestation. Thereafter, these farmers will move on to occupy another plot of land and continually practice their slash-and-burn technique. Available figures and estimates must be treated with caution. In May 2003, the European Commission presented the EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade Action Plan (EU FLEGT). Governments tend to underestimate the situation, given that high estimates of illegal logging may cause embarrassment as these suggest ineffective enforcement of legislation or, even worse, bribery and corruption. A joint UK-Indonesian study of the timber industry in Indonesia in 1998 suggested that about 40% of throughput was illegal, with a value in excess of $365 million. The scale of illegal logging represents a major loss of revenue to many countries and can lead to widespread associated environmental damage. US electricity infrastructure is aging, inadequate, and vulnerable. The Europe and North Asia Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (ENA FLEG) Ministerial Conference was held in Saint Petersburg, Russia on 22–25 November 2005. Illegal logging could be defined as breaking of laws on cutting, processing and transporting timber or wood products. 1. Democracy and science can be powerful partners for the public good—and both are under attack. It is recognised as a world biosphere reserve by the United Nations and forms the largest protected area of swamp forest in South-East Asia. [29], Governmental officials in charge of protected areas have contributed to deforestation by allowing illegal logging and illegal timber trading. Prevention of Illegal Logging Practices). Incredibly, since 2015, the forest area in the Philippines has been rising, mainly thanks to government initiatives and increased law enforcement 1. [1] These acts are often referred to as "wood laundering"[2]. The majority of illegal deforestation is done by the military and powerful sub-contractors. The much heralded decline of illegal logging in the mid- 2000s in some tropical regions was widely attributed to a short-term law enforcement effort. Text STOP to opt out. Executive Order No.26 Declaring an Interdepartmental Convergence Initiative for a National Greening Program 2002). The EU has 2 key legal acts to fight illegal logging: the forest law enforcement, governance and trade regulation the EU timber regulation. The US continues to keep intercontinental ballistic missiles on high alert—creating the risk of a mistaken nuclear war in response to a false warning. On December 28, 2019, Chinese legislators revised the country’s Forest Law to ban “purchase, process or transport” of illegal logs. In June 1977, President Ferdinand Marcos signed a law requiring the planting of one tree every month for five consecutive years by every citizen of the Philippines. We need to grow a resilient food system from the ground up. A senate committee in the Philippines estimated that the country lost as much as US$1.8bn per year during the 1980s. It can also happen when forests are cleared for plantations such as oil palm. Over the last few years, guitars and a sort of obscure law against illegal logging have come into conflict. Illegal logging is the harvesting, processing, transporting, buying or selling of timber in contravention of national and international laws. Almost a century after the Dust Bowl, the unsolved problem of soil erosion clouds the future of US agriculture. [48], A Greenpeace investigation published in May 2014 demonstrates that EU Timber Regulation is ineffective if fraudulent paperwork is accepted at face value and there is not sufficient enforcement by EU authorities. The East Asia Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (EA FLEG) Ministerial Conference took place in Bali in September 2001. A blog on science, politics, and activism. Why isn’t it? Over 25% of the country is covered by forest, and over 90% of this forest is owned by the government. Logs are commonly cut on the Burmese side and then smuggled to processing facilities in China or Thailand. The Lacey Act also makes it unlawful, beginning December 15, 2008, to import certain plants and plant products without a Plant and Plant Product import declaration. There are many cases in which the military carries out illegal logging without knowledge from the government. These illegal activities undermine responsible forest management, encourage corruption and tax evasion and reduce the income of the producer countries, further limiting the resources producer countries can invest in sustainable development. A major problem is that illegal logging is still classified in Myanmar as an environmental matter, and not as a criminal act, making it difficult for the Forest Department to bring a lawsuit against the offenders. In the US, the most important policy related to illegal logging is the Lacey Act, passed more than 100 years ago to limit illegal wildlife trade. The Conference's primary aims were to share analysis on forest law enforcement; explore priority issues of forest law enforcement, including illegal logging in the East Asia region, among senior officials from forest and related ministries, NGOs and industry representatives; and commit to action at the national and regional level. A subcategory of environmental law, Forestry Law relates to all statutes and regulations that deal with the preservation of forests and parks, reforestation activities to ensure the sustainability of the nation's lands, and the prevention of illegal logging activities. This could include harvesting timber from protected areas, felling protected species, or exceeding logging quotas. This further augments scepticism in the Indonesian government's credibility in efficiently and responsibly managing their urban development projects and forestry conservation efforts. Illegal logging is the harvesting of wood that is in violation of national regulations. These good practices were identified and recorded following interviews with the main stakeholders in the eight VPA countries in West and Central Africa, the European Forest Institute's (EFI) EU FLEGT Facility[52] and the European Commission. On the other hand, environmental NGOs publish alarming figures to raise awareness and to emphasise the need for stricter conservation measures. In response to growing concerns over illegal logging and advice from TRAFFIC[10] and other organisations,[11] on May 22, 2008 the U.S. amended the Lacey Act, when the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 expanded its protection to a broader range of plants and plant products (Section 8204. Forestry sustainability in developing countries such as oil palm when forests are protected under environmental 1! Come into conflict political front, the private sector evidence, and uncertainties it force! Lyft to be using illegal timber trading of law and fuels the cycle of transnational.! 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